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The Jesus Family Tomb – Science, Religion and a Rational Christianity

People often ask if science and religion are compatible. This is a reasonable question given that science is based on verifiable fact while most religions require blind acceptance of dogma based on faith. In this regard science and religion would seem to be continuously at odds. Science says, “show me the evidence or I will not believe.” Religion says, “Just believe, faith is belief without evidence.” However, science and religion do not always have to work in opposition to each other, they can work together. One of the most remarkable examples of this synergistic interaction can be found in the New York Times best seller The Jesus Family Tomb, by Simcha Jacobovici and Charles Pellegrino.This remarkable story began on Thursday March 27, 1980 when a bulldozer, clearing the foundation of a new apartment house in the Talpoit region of Jerusalem, opened up a tomb. Rivka Maoz, a recent emigrant to Jerusalem and a student of archeology living nearby, sensed that because of some unusual sculpturing this tomb might be different from the numerous other ancient tombs unearthed by bulldozers. She and Efraim Shochat, an orthodox Jew who was directing the apartment house project, called the Israel Antiquities Authority (IAA) to send archeologists to investigate the tomb before its contents were looted and destroyed. Three archeologists were sent. They logged in ten ossuaries, officially known as IAA80/500-509. The tomb thus became known as the Tomb of the Ten Ossuaries. All ten were to be removed and stored in the IAA warehouse for safekeeping, but only nine the made it to the warehouse. One went missing.One of the aspects of the Tomb of the Ten Ossuaries was the fact that it contained ossuaries. Ossuaries are bone boxes. They were a Jewish custom in use for only about 100 years around the time Jesus lived. Jesus was crucified about 30 CE and ossuaries ceased to be used from 70 CE on, after the Romans destroyed Jerusalem and the Temple. Thus ossuaries are as accurate or even more accurate than radioisotope dating for determining the age of a tomb, and they are precise marker of the time Jesus lived.Ossuaries are like miniature stone coffins far too small to hold a whole body. During the time ossuaries were used after a person died they were placed in a cave and the entrance was blocked with a rolling stone. One year later the bones were collected and placed in an ossuary.In addition to the fact that the Talpoit tomb had ossuaries, thus dating it to the approximate time of the death of Jesus, the most riveting aspect of this tomb was the names on the ossuaries. Of the nine ossuaries in the IAA warehouse, six had inscriptions on them. These inscriptions were: MARIA (Mary); JOSEPH; JESUS, SON OF JOSEPH; JUDAH, SON OF JESUS; MARIAMNE (initially considered another Mary); AND MATTHEW. This Matthew could be the Matthew of the gospels and he could have been a relative of Jesus.After the ossuaries were removed the tomb was sealed in a shell of concrete, seemingly never to be seen again, and the ossuaries collected dust in a warehouse, also seemly forgotten. The curators of the collection ignored the seemingly remarkable collection of names of these ossuaries as simply being common names in that era. It took application of science and the investigations of Charles Pellegrino, a Ph.D. in paleobiology and author of the best selling book, Titanic, and Simcha Jacobovici, Emmy-winning producer of documentaries, to show that the Tomb of the Ten Ossuaries was, to a high decree of probability, the Jesus Family Tomb.An important fact that the team uncovered was that according to modern scholarship, Mary Magdalene’s real name was MARIAMNE. The first example of the application of scientific principles to the tomb involved the science of statistics. In statistics there what is termed the Law of Multiplication. It works as follows. Suppose we are asking what proportion of the U.S. population was left handed and had blue eyes. If 10% (1/10) were left handed and 20% (1/20) had blue eyes, the two fractions would multiplied together giving a frequency of 1/200 left-handed people with blue eyes. Based on all of the known ossuaries with inscriptions, the team was able to determine what proportion of the Jewish population living at the time of ossuaries had the different names noted in the Tomb of Ten Ossuaries. The calculations indicated the random chance of such a collection of names was 1 in 2.4 million. Some considerations increased this number still further. One noted statistician suggested that to be totally rigorous, the above number should be adjusted for those known members of Jesus’s family that were not in the tomb. When this was done the probability dropped to 1/600 that this cluster of Jesus related names could occur by chance. However, it was possible that one or more of the ‘missing’ persons were in four ossuaries without names.In the fall of 2002 Simcha heard of an article about to break on the cover of Biblical Archeology Review concerning the discovery of an ossuary with the inscription JAMES, SON OF JOSEPH BROTHER OF JESUS. Oded Golan, a well-known collector of biblical antiquities, owned the ossuary. Where he obtained it is not clear. After the story broke, on October 31, 2002, a picture of the ossuary appeared on the cover of the New York Times. While some declared it a forgery, again science proved otherwise. It was one of the most tested archeological artifacts in history and when tested with long-wave UV light it passed every test with flying colors.A further application of science involved the testing of the patinas covering the ossuaries. Each ossuary is covered with many centuries of dust and debris. The patina on the ossuaries in a given tomb contain unique amounts of elements such a aluminum, calcium, iron, titanium, and others. Elemental analysis can distinguish the patinas of even neighboring tombs. These analyses showed that as expected, all of the nine ossuaries of the Tomb of Ten Ossuaries stored in the IAA warehouse were indeed from the same tomb. What they also showed was that the JAMES, SON OF JOSEPH BROTHER OF JESUS ossuary also came from this tomb and was the missing tenth ossuary. Adding this ossuary further decreased the odds of this combination of names occurring by chance.In a remarkable bit of detective work, the team tracked down and entered the original Talpiot tomb. It had not been filled with cement after all. This was documented on film and shown on the Discovery Channel over Easter of 2003. It was the highest rated show ever aired on the Discovery Channel.The final piece of remarkable science applied to the Tomb of the Ten Ossuaries was the analysis of mitochondrial DNA sequences taken from scrapings of the Jesus ossuary and the MARIAMNE or Mary Magdalene ossuary. Mitochondria are tiny membrane enclosed bodies in the cytoplasm of cell that generate the energy source (ATP) of cells. They contain their own DNA, different from nuclear DNA. These studies showed that the DNA in the Jesus ossuary and in the Mariamne ossuary were unrelated. The fact that they were buried together in the family tomb with other members of the family strongly suggests they were husband and wife.The most intriguing aspects of the Jesus family tomb in regards to Christian doctrine were that Jesus and Mary Magdalene were buried together an thus were probably married, and they had a son that Judah who died in childhood, that Jesus had siblings, and Jesus’ bones were in the ossuary, not in heaven.According to the Acts of Philip Mary Magdalene was an apostle who preached and baptized and performed healing miracles. This Mary was very different from the Magdalene of Church doctrine and not a ‘fallen woman’ at all. The presence of a mother (Mary) and a father (Joseph), a son (Jesus) and his wife (Mary Magdalene) and their son (Judah), and James, a brother of Jesus in a common family tomb suggests this family was no different than any other family, and that the mother Mary had six children and was not a virgin and Jesus did not physically go the heaven.
What do these findings do to Christian doctrine that says Jesus was born of a virgin birth and when he died he was resurrected into heaven to join his real father, God? Assuming his spirit went to heaven while his body stayed on earth can accommodate the problem of not physically going to heaven. This, of course, makes him no different than the millions of other deceased Christians, Jews, and Muslims, who if they behaved themselves believed their spirit would also go to heaven. Mary had six children. The fact that she was not a virgin is not that surprising. Jesus’ birth of a virginal mother and his resurrection was written into Christian doctrine by multiple authors of the New Testament to add credence to the fundamental aspect of Jesus – that unlike the rest of humanity he was without sin because he was born of a virginal mother, that he was the son of God, and that his resurrection symbolized him dying for the sins of the rest of humanity. These aspects distinguished Jesus from other more mundane prophets of the time and gave Christianity a unique boost critical for its early survival and subsequent rapid spread.Is it possible to be a Christian and accept the above conclusions? Of course! Jesus’ remarkable teachings can form the basis of a spiritual and moral life even if his mother Mary was not a virgin and even if Jesus was not physically resurrected and was not born free of “sin” and was not the literal “son of God.” This form of rational Christianity requires that a metaphorical Jesus, performing metaphorical miracles, can provide the basis of a Christian religion just as well as the much less scientifically reasonable Jesus of church dogma. This metaphorical Jesus can form the basis of a rational Christianity and of a rational spirituality where reason and religion are not in conflict. © 2008

A Review of the Entertain at Home Income Opportunity

As anyone can tell you, some of the most profitable activities that you can ever get into involve entertainment. People will pay money to be entertained and even more, great doors can open for you if people remember you as someone who gave them a little bit of fun. If you’re one of those people who can get people up and excited, you’ll find that the opportunities offered by Entertain at Home might be exactly what you are interested in. Entertain at Home is an extremely new venture, but if it suits your field of expertise, you will want to learn all that you can about the opportunity.The first thing to ask yourself when you are considering looking at this opportunity offered by Entertain at Home is what kind of creativity do you have? Some people are writers, some people are artists, and some people simply know haw to have a good time! Are you good at designing ways to keep people entertained? Have you spent a lot of time as the life of the party? Chances are, this means that you are quite well prepared to know what people want and have a great understanding about how people tick. This can be a great resource when it comes to this opportunity.When you are looking at the Entertain at Home income opportunity, you have to know a little bit about the way games work, too. No one likes a game where only the most mathematically inclined or well-read person will win, after all, but games that are based on pure chance are exasperating even to very young children. Part of designing a good game, whether it is a board game or a loud party activity, is figuring out how well people will tolerate the win and lose conditions.Just because you don’t have a great idea for an original game, though, doesn’t mean that you’re not suited to submit to Entertain at Home. This opportunity also accepts things like remakes of old classics. While you should always be cautious about things like trademarks, there are plenty of other, classic games that you can modify. Do you have a version of Pin the Tail on the Donkey that is sharply political, or have you designed Old Maid in a new art style? This might be the venue you’ve been looking for.When you work with Entertain at Home opportunity, there are a few things to keep in mind. The first thing is that this is not a design or production company; instead, it is more interested in marketing. It is your responsibility to get the game produced and packaged for distribution, which is what this company will handle. If you are in a greatly creative person but have less interest in marketing, this might be just the opportunity that you’ve been looking for.The Entertain at Home opportunity might be perfect for you, or you might seek different options, but take a look, especially if you have a great game idea that you’ve been trying to get off the ground.

5 Empowering Tracks From Female Icons To Make You Feel Inspired

Sometimes we all need a little lift. Whether you’ve had a recent knock to your confidence, have been going through stress in your personal or professional life, or have always struggled with your self-esteem, music is an essential tool for lifting your spirits and making you feel better about yourself.

According to a study by Heriot-Watt University, the type of music you listen to not only influences your mood, but also your personality, with indie and rock/heavy metal fans reporting the lowest levels of self-esteem, while fans of jazz, blues, opera, classical, pop, rap and soul all reported high levels of self-confidence.

So if you’re having a ‘down day’, why not boost your spirits by listening to some powerful, uplifting tracks? Here are five perfect confidence boosters.

Britney Spears – Toxic

Britney’s own struggles with her mental health and conservatorship have made her an inspiration for many people across the world.

This classic song is timelessly sensual, and the heavy beats throughout make it impossible not to dance to. A welcome blast of nostalgia, this tune has filled dance floors across the globe with fans old and new.

The video features Britney as a female spy playing the sexy flight attendant, seducing her passenger before she makes her escape on a motorbike and breaks into a high-security facility guarded by a laser security system.

This track and video is a guaranteed way to feel invincible, and deserves a place on your playlist no matter your mood.

Kelis – Milkshake

A cheesy classic that is guaranteed to make you feel all warm and gooey inside, Kelis pumps up the heat in this 00’s RnB track. Underpinned by intricate drum beats and electric elements, Kelis’ self-confidence is infectious, and it’s hard not to find yourself smiling at the lyrics.

This track is a great way to get into a flirtatious mindset, making it a great choice before going on a date or heading out for the evening.

And if you’re staying in? It’s a great mood lift. But beware! You may find yourself craving a sweet treat.

Eve (ft. Gwen Stefani) – Let Me Blow Your Mind

This RnB classic will capture your attention with its assertive rhythm and powerful vocals from 00’s icons Eve and Gwen Stefani. Featuring a laid-back – yet self-assured – beat, and catchy guitar riff, this is a great track for driving, and its empowering feel is sure to help you feel motivated.

Got a job interview lined up, or thinking of asking for a raise? This anthemic number is a quick way to feel positive and more assertive.

The video features Eve and Gwen Stefani crashing an exclusive event on quad bikes, causing a stir among the privileged attendants, and shoving the performer off stage to perform their own music, before finally being arrested and taken to the station in a police van.

This ‘baddie’ track helps you to tap into the hidden ‘bold’ side of your personality, and lifts your mood while keeping you feeling calm and cool.

Fergie – MILF$

If you have kids, it can be difficult to feel sexy. When you’re running around cleaning the house, changing nappies, or up to your elbows in dishwater, you can easily forget your sensual side – leaving you feeling frumpy and lacking in confidence and motivation.

Thankfully, Fergie’s comeback track is a quick remedy to your low mood and lethargy.

Featuring attractive mothers dressed in curve-hugging latex and silky lingerie going about their daily life in a dreamy, colourful suburbia, this track is a quick way to transform your self-esteem and transport you to a world where you are not just a mother, but a goddess too.

Why not shake off the day and tap into your feminine energy with Fergie, your sexiest PJs, and a bottle of your favourite wine?

Marina And The Diamonds – How To Be A Heartbreaker

Low confidence after a breakup? You’re not alone. Having your heart broken can leave you feeling depressed, undesirable, and unmotivated. So flip the tables on your ex and become a heartbreaker with Marina’s catchy club classic.

This empowering dance track will make you want to move your body and get in touch with your bad girl side, with its heavy beat and pounding rhythms.

Plus, if your libido has suffered as a result of your low mood, take a sneaky peek at the video – it will get your blood pumping with its steamy shower shots and smoking hot male models.

The Pandemic Effects on Hospitality Industries and How They Overcome It

The COVID-19 pandemic affects many aspects and many sectors of life. As a result, economic sectors are fully affected, and the hospitality industry is no exception. The hospitality industry is known to be the source of job opportunities and supports many livelihoods of millions of workers and their families. Because Indonesia is primarily reliant on the service sector, the tourist industry plays an important part in the country’s growth. The increase of the COVID-19 cases has brought about a huge increase in the number of workers getting expelled or having their work ended. How did the hospitality industry survive in this era? The pandemic has provided several opportunities for numerous hospitality industries to use specific mechanisms in order to overcome pandemic difficulties.

Tourism and hospitality industries affected by the COVID-19 pandemic, including hotels, restaurants, resorts, travel agencies, travel and transportation, and real estate, show a significant losing number of tourists. According to the president of the Indonesia Tour Guide Association (HPI, 2020), 45,000 visitors have cancelled their plans to visit main tourist spots in the country between January and May. Furthermore, According to UNWTO (2020), 100-120 million direct and indirect activities were in jeopardy, and foreign tourist numbers decreased 56% year on year from January–May 2020. These noteworthy diminishing numbers primarily influenced the Indonesian financial state. For example, hotel profits have dropped by up to 40%, having an effect on hotel operations and risking business continuity. The drop in international visitors has an effect on the salary of restaurants whose clients are more prevailing than foreign visitors (Block, 2017). Following the dropping, many hospitality industries are taking awareness of tourists’ health risks and protocols taking an advance.

The recovery of hospitality industries is indistinguishable from the progressively sophisticated information innovation utilized to pull in potential visitors to choose to travel. The regaining of tourist attractions after a pandemic is required to utilize other promoting techniques to advertise their items inventively. First, social media marketing reaches many internet users who are looking for tourist information hospitality industry. This strategy is helpful in advertising and attracts many tourists to find more information related to a tourist attraction in the designated region. Second, Tourism industry players and visitors, as well as government action, are required to arbitrate between the two groups. Government policies must be in the form of the finest judgments to characterize the middle ground between commercial actors and visitors (Anggarini, 2021). This means that provided policy in the hospitality sector during-post pandemics maintains the best solution for both tourists and hospitality owners. Last, all tourism-related activities must adapt to current conditions, in which humans must live alongside Covid-19 (Anggarini, 2021). By all means, many factors, including health issues, hygiene, and safety for tourists, are priorities.

In conclusion, even though the pandemic is really affecting the hospitality industry as a whole, it gives many advancements of movement done by the hospitality industry to survive. Many resources are being used as the development of technology to provide data destinations insight. In addition, the sophistication of information technology can also facilitate the government in supervising the implementation of safe travel in accordance with government recommendations. All these initiations are good examples of overcoming pandemic situations while running hospitality industries.